Chlorination is a treatment that is very common in municipal water treatment systems. It involves treating water with chlorine to kill microorganisms. This can be done to an entire well by treating the well with liquid or powdered chlorine.
There is also a new method available which uses a pump to drop chlorine pellets into a well automatically. The only maintenance the homeowner has is restocking the pellets periodically. There are small units, which serve just one home or one faucet available.
Chlorine remains in the water so it will keep working in the pipes well after the water had passed the point-of-use treatment device. Unfortunately, this also leaves a residue in drinking water, which many people find unpleasant to taste or smell. Activated carbon filters are an inexpensive way to reduce the chlorine content and improve taste and odor. While chlorine works on most microbiological contaminates, it does not affect the removal of nitrates.